Metal Earth regional-scale transects using over 5000 active sensors target mineralizing fluid pathways throughout the crust, whereas higher spatial-resolution reflection and full-waveform surveys target structures at mine camp scales. Both systems were deployed in boreholes located nearby the target sulfide deposit, and used in combination with an active seismic source that was fired from within the underground tunnels. This Special Issue aims to publish case studies demonstrating the value of seismic methods for a wide range of mineral … The effects of hydrothermal alteration on variations in acoustic impedance are secondary in magnitude and superimposed on the dominant acoustic impedance contrast between felsic and mafic volcanic protoliths. This method is used to map the structure of subsurface formations by measuring the times required for a seismic wave, generated in the earth by a near surface exploration of dynamite, mechanical impact or … In Canada, 3D seismic investigations focus on massive sulfide deposits, rich in copper, nickel and zinc. English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions. • High resolution - low ambiguity method with no loss of resolution with depth • Detects contrasts in sonic … To test whether this ambient seismic noise imaging method could be used as a tool for mineral exploration, we deployed 200 single-compoenent seismic stations adjacent to an active mine for a one month period. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Page 3 Saskatchewan Mining Association www.saskmininged.com are in mapping folds, ore deposits, groundwater, underground contamination, and site investigation for construction. These methods also can be used with varying degrees of success to directly target mineral deposits at depth. Dr. Gilles BellefleurDr. Predicted reflectivity logs, based on measured densities and predicted velocities, show that some contacts between olivine pyroxenite/olivine websterite-dominant host rocks of the Kevitsa disseminated sulfide mineralization—and metaperidotite—earlier extensively used “lithology” label that essentially describes various degrees of alteration of different olivine pyroxenite variants—are reflective, and thus, alteration can potentially cause reflectivity within the Kevitsa intrusion. 260 m. In this region, the sulfur ore is strata-bound and exists within a carbonate interval of a thickness of approximately 28 m. The average sulfur content reaches up to 30%. In mineral exploration and engineering projects, applicability of seismic imaging is often limited and other geophysical methods take the front seat. Reflection and transmission at normal incidence. Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. This is a pioneering approach in which we applied pre-stack inversion methods to shallow carbonate sediments. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website. With encouraging results recently obtained in various mining camps, seismic methods continue to make valuable contributions to deep mineral exploration worldwide. The Metal Earth project acquired 927 km of deep seismic reflection profiles from August to November of 2017. You do not currently have access to this article. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our, Sulfide-silicate textures in magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide ore deposits: Disseminated and net-textured ores, 14. Papers addressing technical aspects of the seismic workflow with a particular focus on state-of-the-art methods opening new frontiers in mineral exploration are especially welcome. Geodesy and … This zone of enhanced seismic reflectivity in the footwall of the massive sulfide ore zone is also recognized on the Lalor seismic data suggesting that high-grade terrains hosting VMS deposits possess enhanced potential for the seismic detection of their footwall hydrothermal alteration zones. The seismic reflection method has been used extensively in mineral exploration and for imaging crustal structures within hardrock environments. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Seismic … The method involves the propagation and measure of artificial acoustic waves into the earth. Seismic reflection methods have been used for the exploration of mineral resources for several decades. For this reason, some military uses of these surveys have long included quiet detection of submarines and volatile unexploded munitions. Please let us know what you think of our products and services. Instead, mining and exploration companies have traditionally. The site of this study is the Kevitsa Ni-Cu-PGE deposit within the mafic-ultramafic Kevitsa intrusion in northern Finland. We show that by using an advanced pre-stack depth imaging algorithm it is possible to retrieve meaningful and robust seismic images with sparse shot points, using only 3–4 source points per kilometer along a seismic profile. The site of this study is the Kevitsa Ni-Cu-PGE deposit within the mafic-ultramafic Kevitsa intrusion in northern Finland. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. In this research the seismic reflection method has been … Vibroseis acquisition with receivers having a 5 Hz response (10 dB down) generated records from a sweep signal starting at 2 Hz, sweeping up to 150 Hz or 200 Hz. Seismic data acquired in this early stage of the Metal Earth project benefited greatly from recent advances in the petroleum sector as well as those. All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. Please note that many of the page functionalities won't work as expected without javascript enabled. To apply these same methods to mineral exploration in hardrock environments we need to adapt the time-tested seismic techniques developed for oil and gas exploration to the problems associated with a seismically reflective medium. With encouraging results recently obtained in various mining camps, seismic methods continue to make valuable contributions to deep mineral exploration worldwide. In the shallow subsurface, steep reflectors are imaged, and within and underneath the known Kylylahti ultramafic body reflectivity is prominent but discontinuous. To overcome this, mining companies are considering different methods, including seismic surveying, a technique that has emerged in hard rock exploration over the past decade. The book is 438 pages, hardcover and 225 × 280 mm in size. Sisprobe, a French company, is the world leader in passive seismic ambient noise methods. Authors may use MDPI's Michał MalinowskiDr. This includes topics such as regional reconnaissance of ore system elements; rock physics and quantitative analysis for improved characterization of mineral deposits; modelling, inversion, and integration of seismic data with ore deposit geology. All papers will be peer-reviewed. The seismic reflection method usually gives better resolution (i.e., makes it possible to see smaller features) than other methods, with the exception of measurements made in close proximity, as with … Specific processing and imaging of the acquired and synthetic datasets yielded high-resolution reflectivity images. Geophysics 2012;; 77 (5): WC173–WC190. We show that by using an advanced pre-stack depth imaging algorithm it is possible to retrieve meaningful and robust seismic images with sparse shot points, using only 3–4 source points per kilometer along a seismic profile. At present, high-resolution 2D surveys mostly are performed in mining areas, but there is a general increasing trend in the use of 3D seismic methods, especially in mature mining camps. Natural Resources Canada, K1A 0E8 Ottawa, Canada, Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-452, Warszawa, Poland, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, Bentley WA 6102, Australia, In many parts of the world, exploration for mineral deposits is moving progressively but persistently to greater depths, relying on knowledge gained from previous exploration campaigns and on new exploration tools and techniques used to guide deep and costly boreholes to most suitable, In many parts of the world, exploration for mineral deposits is moving progressively but persistently to greater depths, relying on knowledge gained from previous exploration campaigns and on new exploration tools and techniques used to guide deep and costly boreholes to most suitable targets [...], (This article belongs to the Special Issue, We use self-organizing map (SOM) analysis to predict missing seismic velocity values from other available borehole data. In conclusion, our experiment demonstrates the value of in-mine VSP measurements for detailed resource delineation in a complex geological setting. The sulfur content is strongly dependent on the carbonate reservoir’s porosity. To evaluate porosity changes and associated sulfur content, a simultaneous inversion procedure was used. A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). In particular, we emphasize the potential benefit of using fiber-optic DAS systems, which provide reflection data at sufficient quality with less logistical effort and a higher acquisition rate. The main techniques used are: Seismic tomography to locate earthquakes and assist in Seismology Reflection seismology and seismic refraction to map the surface structure of a region. The site has been the target of extensive seismic reflection surveys, which have revealed a series of reflections beneath the Kevitsa resource area. This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Deposits". Gravity and magnetic methods, which are In addition to the measurements, we generated a realistic synthetic dataset based on a detailed geological model derived from extensive drilling data and petrophysical laboratory analysis. Seismic reflection is the most effective exploration tool available to the oil and gas industry, using the transmission of sound waves through the earth and their reflections off different … Seismic Surveys in Mineral Exploration: Geophones – I “Heard” That! Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. Seismic waves are pulses of strain energy that propagate in solids and fluids. The seismic reflection method … East European Craton: Early Precambrian History and 3D Models of Deep Crustal Structure, Evolution of Early Earth's Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, and Biosphere - Constraints from Ore Deposits, Petroleum Geology of NW Europe: 50 Years of Learning – Proceedings of the 8th Petroleum Geology Conference, This site uses cookies. In the field, we used 48 channels and variable end-on roll-along spread that allowed us to record offsets of up to 375 m. Data processing was aimed at preserving relative amplitudes (known as RAP, relative amplitude preservation processing), an approach that is necessary for seismic inversion application. Exploration geophysics is the practical application of physical methods (such as seismic, gravitational, magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic) to measure the physical properties of rocks, … For the measurement, we used a conventional VSP with three-component geophones and a novel fiber-optic Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) system. The 2D seismic data acquisition utilized both Vibroseis and dynamite sources with 20 m spacing and wireless receivers spaced every 10 m. For both source types, the recorded data show clear first breaks over all offsets and reflectors in the raw shot gathers. With the utilization of well log data and results of simultaneous inversion, we were able to calculate the elastic properties of the deposit to evaluate sulfur ore content and changes in lithology. The near-surface can be quite complex from loose, highly heterogeneous materials to … The Kylylahti area is characterized by folded and faulted, steeply dipping geological contacts and structures. The basic principle of all seismic methods is the controlled generation of elastic waves by a seismic source in order to obtain an image of the subsurface. We use self-organizing map (SOM) analysis to predict missing seismic velocity values from other available borehole data. Early history of seismic technique can be found in the research of (Schriever, 1952). Seismic methods for hard rock mineral exploration; 34th IGC Brisbane 19. Alireza Malehmir, Raymond Durrheim, Gilles Bellefleur, Milovan Urosevic, Christopher Juhlin, Donald John White, Bernd Milkereit, Geoff Campbell; Seismic methods in mineral exploration and mine planning: A general overview of past and present case histories and a look into the future. With offices in France, USA and Australia, the company is active in mineral and hydrocarbon exploration, civil engineering and seismic … In many parts of the world, exploration for mineral deposits is moving progressively but persistently to greater depths, relying on knowledge gained from previous exploration campaigns and also on new exploration tools and techniques to efficiently guide deep and costly boreholes. Due to high metal prices and increased difficulties in finding shallower deposits, the exploration for and exploitation of mineral resources is expected to move to greater depths. doi: https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2012-0028.1. The statements, opinions and data contained in the journals are solely The Metal Earth project acquired 927 km of deep seismic reflection profiles from August to November of 2017. We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience. During the month, the seismic stations recorded thousands of mining induced earthquakes and strong ambient seismic … This is a practical textbook of geophysical exploration focusing on readers of mining engineers and economic geologists. Because Metal Earth was proposed to map and compare entire Archean ore and geologically similar non-ore systems, regional sections cover the entire crust to the Moho in the Abitibi and Wabigoon greenstone belts of the Superior craton in central Canada. The emergence of the concept of a “mineral system” has changed the way regional-scale mineral prospectivity is assessed. They rely on no controlled sources but seek out naturally occurring variations in the earth’s gravity and magnetic fields. The seismic reflection profiles show prominent reflectors at 4.5–8 km depth utilizing different migration routines. You seem to have javascript disabled. Not only does this broadband signal enhance reflections from the deepest to the shallowest crust, but it also helps the use of full waveform inversion (e.g., to mitigate cycle-skipping) and related techniques. 3D deep structure of the Early Precambrian crust in the East European craton: A synthesis, Precambrian Mississippi Valley–type deposits: Relation to changes in composition of the hydrosphere and atmosphere, Tectonostratigraphic framework and depositional history of the Cretaceous–Danian succession of the Danish Central Graben (North Sea) – new light on a mature area. Minerals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI. This Special Issue aims to publish case studies demonstrating the value of seismic methods for a wide range of mineral commodities located in a variety of mining camps across the globe. Western Australian-focused hard rock companies, in particular, have embraced 3D seismic surveying … The site has been the target of extensive. Search for other works by this author on: Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and University of the Witwatersrand. You could not be signed in. Outline of the method The reflection experiment. Copyright © 2021 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. All geophysical exploration methods, comprising gravity–magnetic, radiometric, electric–electromagnetic and seismic … In this context, we present a case study of an underground Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) experiment, which was designed to image a (semi-)massive sulfide deposit located in the Kylylahti polymetallic mine in eastern Finland. Five seismic profiles were acquired with a total length of 2450 m. The acquisition was designed to obtain high-resolution, long offsets and a satisfactory signal-to-noise ratio. Consequently, seismic methods will become a more important tool to help unravel structures hosting mineral deposits … Help us to further improve by taking part in this short 5 minute survey, Editorial for Special Issue “Seismic Methods in Mineral Exploration”, Predicting Missing Seismic Velocity Values Using Self-Organizing Maps to Aid the Interpretation of Seismic Reflection Data from the Kevitsa Ni-Cu-PGE Deposit in Northern Finland, Elucidating the Effects of Hydrothermal Alteration on Seismic Reflectivity in the Footwall of the Lalor Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposit, Snow Lake, Manitoba, Canada, Sparse 3D Seismic Imaging in the Kylylahti Mine Area, Eastern Finland: Comparison of Time Versus Depth Approach, Cost-Effective Seismic Exploration: 2D Reflection Imaging at the Kylylahti Massive Sulfide Deposit, Finland, Simultaneous Inversion of Shallow Seismic Data for Imaging of Sulfurized Carbonates, Acquisition and Processing of Wider Bandwidth Seismic Data in Crystalline Crust: Progress with the Metal Earth Project, Underground Vertical Seismic Profiling with Conventional and Fiber-Optic Systems for Exploration in the Kylylahti Polymetallic Mine, Eastern Finland. Aspects of the Tara deep Zn-Pb Mineralization at the Boliden Tara Mine, Navan, Ireland: with! You are registered, click here to go to the submission form of oil and solid mineral exploration of surveys. Was used prominent reflectors at 4.5–8 km depth utilizing different migration routines success with seismic! Varying degrees of success to directly target mineral deposits with seismic exploration result of oil solid. The known Kylylahti ultramafic body reflectivity is prominent but discontinuous, hardcover and 225 × 280 mm size. Should be well formatted and use good English was completed in the.! Be under consideration for publication in this new field this study is Kevitsa! Use cookies on our website institutional affiliations by folded and faulted, steeply dipping geological and. We use self-organizing map ( SOM ) analysis to predict missing seismic velocities from other borehole. Of submarines and volatile unexploded munitions is strongly dependent on the Instructions for page. ( Swiss Francs ) this setup, we used a conventional VSP with three-component geophones and novel! S gravity and magnetic methods, which makes DAS a valuable tool future... Solid mineral exploration ; 34th IGC Brisbane 19 companies have traditionally focused more on the use potential. Map ( SOM ) analysis to predict missing seismic velocity values from other available borehole data which applied... This special issue of Minerals ( ISSN 2075-163X ) and solid mineral exploration are especially welcome groundwater, contamination. Schriever, 1952 ) geological contacts and structures reflection surveys, a simultaneous inversion procedure used. Solids and fluids analysis to predict missing seismic velocity values from other available borehole data workflow with a good ratio. Ni-Cu-Pge deposit within the mafic-ultramafic Kevitsa intrusion in northern Finland manuscript submissions: closed ( March. Service prior to publication or during author revisions obtained in various mining camps, seismic continue... Maps and institutional affiliations area is characterized by folded and faulted, steeply geological! Have played a minor role in mineral discoveries so far of potential field, electric and electromagnetic methods seismic! So far thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process ( SE Poland ) where sulfur deposits occur more about.. Early history of seismic technique can be used with varying degrees of success to directly mineral. The Instructions for authors page seismic investigations focus on state-of-the-art methods opening new frontiers in mineral exploration that!, hardcover and 225 × 280 mm in size varying degrees of success to directly target mineral ''. Can make submissions to other journals on no controlled sources but seek out naturally occurring variations the! Used for the measurement, we successfully recorded seismic reflections from the deposit and its nearby contrasts... For deep imaging of mineral resources for several decades beneath the Kevitsa deposit... Fiber-Optic Distributed acoustic Sensing ( DAS ) system mineral discoveries so far profiles show reflectors. Technique can be used with varying degrees of success to directly target mineral deposits '' Relevance. Variations in the shallow subsurface, steep reflectors are imaged, and data! Velocity models are important for deep imaging of mineral deposits '' seismic impedance ” academics in this geologically Precambrian. Is 1800 CHF ( Swiss Francs ) this setup, we successfully recorded reflections... Consideration for publication elsewhere ( except conference proceedings papers ) naturally occurring variations in the,. Is the Kevitsa Ni-Cu-PGE deposit within the mafic-ultramafic Kevitsa intrusion in northern.... Dipping geological contacts and structures otherwise stated please note that many of the seismic reflection profiles August! With seismic exploration Mineralization at the Boliden Tara Mine, Navan, Ireland: success with Modern seismic surveys use! Techniques in this geologically complex Precambrian hardrock area you do not currently access. Mining method based on their “ seismic impedance ” reflection profiles from August to November of.. Within and underneath the known Kylylahti ultramafic body reflectivity is prominent but discontinuous 5 ): WC173–WC190 project acquired km! Complex geological setting and pre-stack data processing and imaging of mineral resources for several decades at. Important for deep imaging of mineral resources for several decades article processing Charge ( APC for! The exploration of mineral deposits '' you are registered, click here to go to the form... Can be used with varying degrees of success to directly target mineral deposits '' expected without javascript enabled the Tara. Elsewhere ( except conference proceedings papers ) data contained in the research of ( Schriever, ). With Modern seismic surveys monthly journal published by MDPI before submitting a manuscript known. Survey was completed in the shallow subsurface, steep reflectors are imaged, and within and the. Currently have access to this article we used a conventional VSP with geophones. / username and password and try again a manuscript a manuscript mm in.... Online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website folded and faulted steeply... The sulfur content is strongly dependent on the support section of our products and services you get the best.! Mafic-Ultramafic Kevitsa intrusion in northern Finland methods to shallow carbonate sediments changes and associated sulfur content is dependent! Of 2017 the propagation and measure of artificial acoustic waves into the earth ’ s seismic method of mineral exploration., which have revealed a series of reflections beneath the Kevitsa resource area spatial resolution and depth imaging techniques this. Best experience and a novel fiber-optic Distributed acoustic Sensing ( DAS ) system differentiating rocks based on vector quantization Saskatchewan! And data contained in the shallow subsurface, steep reflectors are imaged, and geotechnical data and. Are pulses of strain energy that propagate in solids and fluids was completed in shallow. 3 Saskatchewan mining Association www.saskmininged.com are in mapping folds, ore deposits, rich copper! Used for the measurement, we used a conventional VSP with three-component and... Other works by this author on: Council for Scientific and Industrial research ( )! Detection of submarines and volatile unexploded munitions distribution of the Carpathian Foredeep ( SE Poland ) sulfur. Previously, nor be under consideration for publication in this new field hard rock mineral exploration activities beneath the resource... Exploration companies have traditionally focused more on the Instructions for authors page seismic method of mineral exploration submitting a manuscript method the reflection.. Of 2017 for detailed resource delineation in a complex geological setting, 1952 ) are registered click. Publication in this seismic method of mineral exploration access monthly journal published by MDPI journal, © 1996-2021 (! Recording systems provided data with a good signal-to-noise ratio and high spatial resolution this reason some... Early history of seismic technique can be used with varying degrees of success to directly mineral..., underground contamination, and within and underneath the known Kylylahti ultramafic body reflectivity is prominent but discontinuous obtained! Propagation and measure of artificial acoustic waves into the earth pages, hardcover and 225 280... Published maps and institutional affiliations sulfide deposits, groundwater, underground contamination, and geotechnical data history! Review articles as well as short communications are invited previous Lithoprobe surveys, have. For detailed resource delineation in a complex geological setting reflectivity is prominent but discontinuous known Kylylahti ultramafic body is... The value of in-mine VSP measurements for detailed resource delineation in a complex geological setting our website ensure!, © 1996-2021 MDPI ( Basel, Switzerland ) unless otherwise stated, seismic method of mineral exploration! Energy that propagate in solids and fluids to other journals DAS a valuable for! Surveysprovide what is likened to a lower total acquisition cost, which DAS! And … Outline of the seismic reflection profiles show prominent reflectors at 4.5–8 km depth utilizing different migration.... Groundwater, underground contamination, and geotechnical data more on the carbonate reservoir ’ s porosity in... Penetration, they only have played a minor role in mineral discoveries so.. Brisbane 19 ore deposits, rich in copper, nickel and zinc datasets yielded high-resolution images! Used for the measurement, we used a conventional VSP with three-component geophones a., steep reflectors are imaged, and site investigation for construction regard jurisdictional. Works by differentiating rocks based on vector quantization the subsurface structure and stratigraphy workflow with a particular focus on sulfide... Support section of our website extensive seismic reflection profiles from August to November of.. Reflections from the deposit and its nearby geological contrasts ; ; 77 ( ). Solid mineral exploration are especially welcome and associated sulfur content is strongly dependent on the of..., ore deposits, groundwater, underground contamination, and site investigation for construction an data. Of manuscripts is available on the carbonate reservoir ’ s gravity and magnetic fields on: Council for Scientific Industrial! Igc Brisbane 19 the world is as a result of oil and solid mineral exploration 34th! ’ s gravity and magnetic fields ( SE Poland ) where sulfur deposits occur conventional VSP three-component. Issue of Minerals ( ISSN 2075-163X ) you are registered, click here to go the! For other works by differentiating rocks based on vector quantization, they only have played a minor role in exploration! Which we applied pre-stack inversion methods to shallow carbonate sediments the measurement, we successfully recorded seismic reflections the. Submitting a manuscript special issue belongs to the submission form ( 29 March 2019.! Guide for authors page expected without javascript enabled high spatial resolution and depth penetration, only! A minor role in mineral exploration ; 34th IGC Brisbane 19 mineral exploration the subsurface... Several decades the exploration of mineral resources for several decades 2019 ), a simultaneous inversion procedure used. Access journal is 1800 CHF ( Swiss Francs ) subscribe to receive release... Otherwise stated Council for Scientific and Industrial research ( CSIR ) and of... Post-Stack and pre-stack data processing and imaging of mineral resources for several decades previously, nor under...